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Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts

Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - What it is

What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a condition where the lining of the womb responsible for menstruation is found outside the womb. Up to ten percent of women are affected with endometriosis.



The lining of the womb responds to menstrual hormones and causes ‘menstruation’ outside the womb. Over time, this will cause inflammation, tissue damage and scar formation (adhesions).



Endometriosis commonly affects the ovaries giving rise to ovarian cysts or endometrioma. It can also be found behind or within the womb, causing pelvic pain.






Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - Symptoms

Symptoms of Endometriosis

If you have endometriosis, you may have some of the following symptoms or be symptom-free.
  1. Pain during menstruation
  2. Pain during sexual activity
  3. Chronic pelvic pain
  4. Heavy or irregular menstruations
  5. Pelvic mass from large ovarian cysts/endometrioma
  6. Enlarged womb (adenomyosis) from infiltrative endometriosis
  7. Subfertility
  8. Bowel-related symptoms during menstruation (diarrhea, constipation, painful bowel movements)
  9. Urinary-related symptoms during menstruation (painful urination, bloody urination)

Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - How to prevent?

Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - Causes and Risk Factors

Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - Diagnosis

Diagnosis of Endometriosis

Endometriosis can be suspected based on symptoms. Sometimes, endometriotic spots can be seen and felt during pelvic examination.

Pelvic ultrasound scan and blood tests may support the diagnosis.


To diagnose endometriosis conclusively, surgery is needed and a diagnostic laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) is the gold standard.

Laparoscopy is a surgery done under general anaesthesia. It allows a detailed and magnified view inside the pelvis to indicate the locations, extent and size of endometriosis.

Surgical treatment of endometriosis can then be undertaken at the same setting during diagnostic laparoscopy.



Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - Treatments

Medications for treatment of Endometriosis

Treatment of endometriosis is aimed at alleviating symptoms and improving quality of life.
  1. Painkillers – help to stop mild menstruation pain
  2. Hormonal treatments – reduce pain and correct heavy or irregular menstrual flow.
    • Oral contraceptive pills
    • Progesterone drugs
    • Danazol (testosterone derivative)
    • GnRH analogues (menopause inducing injection)

Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - Preparing for surgery

Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - Post-surgery care

Endometriosis and Ovarian Cysts - Other Information

Surgery for treatment of Endometriosis

Laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) can:
  1. Remove ovarian endometriomas
  2. Remove endometriotic spots
  3. Remove scarring (adhesions) caused by endometriosis
  4. Repair the damage endometriosis has caused to the tubes and hence restore normal anatomy to improve fertility
  5. Remove the womb and both ovaries (definitive cure, generally reserved for patients who have completed their family and are near menopause)
Sometimes open (conventional) surgery may be required.

KKH Endometriosis Centre

The KKH Endometriosis Centre is a one-stop centre, focused on providing holistic and multidisciplinary care to patients with endometriosis.

Our centre is supported by a team consisting of:
  1. Gynaecologists with interest and surgical expertise in management of endometriosis
  2. Specialists in pain management
  3. Colorectal specialist
  4. Nurse counsellor
  5. Endometriosis support group
Call us if you need further information or for an appointment.

◾+65 9233-1457 (Centre Co-ordinator Hotline)
◾+ 65 6294 4050 (Appointment)
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The information provided on this page does not replace information from your healthcare professional. Please consult your healthcare professional for more information.

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