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Department of Pathology

As a comprehensive provider of clinical & diagnostic laboratory services, the Department of Pathology at Sengkang General Hospital plays a vital role in providing holistic and quality laboratory tests to support the needs of doctors and clinicians in the diagnosis, management and prevention of various diseases. The team of pathologists and laboratory scientists work in close collaboration with clinical colleagues for optimum patient care.

All policies and procedures integral to the quality of services are developed, validated and reviewed by the current standards of practice and the requirements of the regulatory authorities.

Laboratory Tests Offered

The Department of Pathology uses state-of-the-art equipment to offer a comprehensive range of laboratory tests for diagnosis, management and prevention of a wide variety of diseases. They offer a full and extensive range of diagnostic testing and provide comprehensive explanations of results to respective healthcare professionals.

Description Test(s) Performed
​Anatomical Pathology

Anatomical pathology is the discipline of medicine that includes the study of organs and tissues (groups of cells) in a body. It is vital in those parts of medicine where a specimen of tissue or a sample of tissue cells is taken from the patient and sent to the laboratory. In these situations, anatomical pathology is the specialty that gives the definitive diagnosis and allows clinicians to give the most appropriate advice and treatment to their patients.

Two main subdivisions exist within the anatomical pathology. The first is histopathology, which involves the microscopic examination of samples taken from the whole tissues. This is often aided by the use of special staining techniques and other associated tests. The second subdivision is cytopathology or cytology, which is the examination of single cells. It is often used to investigate diseases involving a wide range of body sites, often to aid in the diagnosis of cancer but also in the diagnosis of some infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions.

  1. Routine surgical biopsies
  2. Frozen section
  3. Specialised biopsies such as Renal biopsies, Bone marrow trephine biopies, Gastrointestinal biopsies, Liver biopsies etc
  4. Immunofluorescence for renal and skin cases
  5. Immunohistochemistry
  6. Electron microscopy
  7. Tissue preparation for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)/Molecular
  1. Gynaecological Cytology (Conventional Cervical Pap Smear and Liquid-based Gynaecological Cytology)
  2. Non-Gynaecological Cytology (e.g., sputum, urines, peritoneal/ pleural fluid, lavages)
  3. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
  4. Identification of infections and associated organisms including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses.
  5. Evaluation of joint aspirates
​Body Fluids & Miscellaneous

Laboratory testing can be performed on many types of fluids from the body other than blood. Often, these fluids are tested instead of blood because they can give more direct answers to what may be going on in a particular part of the body.

Samples are usually obtained through the collection of fluid in a container (e.g., urine, semen) or by inserting a needle into the body cavity and aspirating with a syringe a portion of the fluid (e.g. CSF, synovial fluid). Once a sample is obtained, a variety of tests may be performed, including chemistry testing, cell count, WBC differential count, microbiology testing, infectious disease testing, crystals identification etc.

  1. Urine Formed Elements Microscopic Examination (UFEME)
  2. Urine Dipstick Analysis
  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis
  4. Pleural Fluid Analysis
  5. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis
  6. Synovial Fluid Analysis
  7. Serum and Urine Osmolality Testing
  8. Serum and Urine Beta-hCG Screening
  9. Dengue Screen (Antigen testing, IgG and IgM Screen)
  10. VDRL Testing
  11. MRSA Testing
Blood Banking & Transfusion Medicine

The Blood Banking & Transfusion Medicine Section provides round the clock testing on a routine and STAT basis in ABO/Rh type determination, pre-transfusion screening for clinically significant red cell antibodies, compatibility testing or cross-matching for blood transfusion, direct Coombs testing and transfusion reaction testing.

  1. ABO & RH Grouping
  2. Antibodies Screen
  3. Direct Coombs Test
  4. Cross Match
  5. Transfusion Reaction Testing

Clinical Biochemistry

The Clinical Biochemistry Section provides services for analysing biochemical constituents in body fluids such as blood, urine, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, etc. It offers a huge range of routine and non-routine quantitative tests on a 24/7 basis that will assist clinicians in the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of diseases.

  1. Renal Function Tests
  2. Liver Function Tests
  3. Thyroid Function Tests
  4. Cardiac Markers
  5. Lipid Panel
  6. Anaemic Panel
  7. Tumour Markers
  8. Inflammatory Markers
  9. Hormones
  10. Blood Ketones
  11. Glucose Tolerance Test
  12. HbA1c
  13. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
  14. Arterial Blood Gases
  15. HIV and Hepatitis Screen

The Microbiology section assists in the diagnosis of infectious diseases using an expanding repertoire of techniques. Tests not found on the menu will be sent to SGH.

  1. Bacteriology (Identification and susceptibility)
  2. Mycology
  3. Mycobacteriology (AFB smear only)

The Section of Haematology & Coagulation provides routine haematology and coagulation testing and blood-borne parasites screening.

  1. Full blood count
  2. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
  3. Blood Film Reporting
  4. Blood for Malarial Parasites
  5. Blood for Microfilariae
  1. Prothrombin Time (PT) & INR
  2. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)
  3. D-Dimer Testing (Quantitative)
  4. Fibrinogen Testing
  5. Thrombin Clotting Time (TCT)

The Molecular Section offers tests designed to detect a wide repertoire of infectious agents using molecular methods. These methods include in-house assays based on conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as well as commercial kit-based assays on platforms such as real-time PCR, hybrid capture and line probe assays. It also offers routine and rapid molecular tests for monitoring of viral loads, detection of mutations and genotyping of viruses.



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