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Department of Pathology

Through an array of hospital-based clinical and diagnostic laboratory services, the Department of Pathology at Sengkang General Hospital provide clinicians with information for the diagnosis, management and prevention of various diseases.  The department is staffed by a dedicated team of pathologists and laboratory scientists who work in close collaboration with clinical colleagues for optimum patient care. 

All policies and procedures integral to the quality of services are developed, validated and reviewed by the current standards of practice and the requirements of the regulatory authorities.

Laboratory Tests Offered

The Department of Pathology uses state-of-the-art equipment to offer a comprehensive range of laboratory tests.

Description Test(s) Performed
​Anatomical Pathology

Anatomical pathology is the discipline of medicine that includes the study of organs and tissues (groups of cells) in a body. It is vital in those parts of medicine where a specimen of tissue or a sample of tissue cells is taken from the patient and sent to the laboratory. In these situations, anatomical pathology is the specialty that gives the definitive diagnosis and allows clinicians to give the most appropriate advice and treatment to their patients.

There are two main subdivisions within the anatomical pathology. The first is histopathology, which involves the microscopic examination of samples taken from the whole tissues. This is often aided by the use of special staining techniques and other associated tests. The second subdivision is cytopathology or cytology, which is the examination of single cells. It is often used to investigate diseases involving a wide range of body sites, often to aid in the diagnosis of cancer but also in the diagnosis of some infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions.

  1. Routine surgical biopsies
  2. Frozen section
  3. Specialised biopsies such as Renal biopsies, Bone marrow trephine biopies, Gastrointestinal biopsies, Liver biopsies etc
  4. Immunofluorescence for renal and skin cases
  5. Immunohistochemistry

  1. Gynaecological Cytology (Conventional Cervical Pap Smear and Liquid-based Gynaecological Cytology)
  2. Non-Gynaecological Cytology (e.g., sputum, urines, peritoneal/ pleural fluid, lavages)
  3. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
  4. Identification of infections and associated organisms including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses.
  5. Evaluation of joint aspirates
​Body Fluids & Miscellaneous

Laboratory testing, such as microscopic examination and chemical analysis, can be performed on other fluids from the body besides blood.

The results help supplement those obtained from blood testing.

  1. Urine Full Examination Microscopic Examination (UFEME)
  2. Urine Dipstick Analysis
  3. Urine Phase Contrast Microscopy
  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis
  5. Pleural Fluid Analysis
  6. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis
  7. Synovial Fluid Analysis
  8. Urine Beta-hCG Screening
  9. Dengue Screen (Antigen testing, IgG and IgM Screen)
  10. Helicobacter Pylori Rapid Screen Test
Blood Banking & Transfusion Medicine

The Blood Banking & Transfusion Medicine section supplies various blood components (red cells, platelets, plasma and cryoprecipitate) and purified plasma-derived blood products (such as clotting factor concentrates) for both routine transfusions and blood support during emergency situations such as massive bleeding. The hospital blood bank maintains an emergency inventory of blood to readily meet clinical contingency.

To ensure patients receive safe and compatible blood components, the section provides round-the-clock pre-transfusion testing for ABO group/Rh type determination, screening for presence of clinically significant red cell antibodies, and cross-match compatibility testing to identify suitable blood units for patient transfusion.

Testing services also include direct coombs test for suspected immune hemolysis and targeted lab investigations to work up transfusion reactions. Processing of samples intended for specialized immuno-hematology testing (example, Cryoglobulins, Cold Agglutinins, Donath Landsteiner Antibodies, Anti-HLA/HPA antibodies) is also performed at SKH blood bank section prior to dispatch to national reference laboratories).

The hospital blood bank assists SKH Blood Transfusion Committee to closely monitor the quality and safety of the clinical transfusion in the hospital though audit   of key quality and safety indicators for lab and clinical transfusion practice, including usage, wastages and incidents.

In addition, the blood bank actively assesses relevant emerging technology to improve blood product access and optimal product selection. 

  1. ABO Grouping and RhD typing
  2. Red cell antibody screening
  3. Direct Coombs Test
  4. Cross Match Compatibility Testing
  5. Transfusion Reaction Workup
  6.  Clotting Factor Provision Workflow for ROTEM-guided Coagulation Product Replacement
  7. Rapid blood delivery to critical care areas by hospital pneumatic tube system

Clinical Biochemistry

The Clinical Biochemistry section provides 24/7 services for analyzing biochemical constituents in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids. A wide range of tests are offered to assist clinicians in the diagnosis and management of diseases.

  1. Renal Function Tests
  2. Liver Function Tests
  3. Thyroid Function Tests
  4. Cardiac Markers
  5. Lipid Panel
  6. Anaemic Panel
  7. Tumour Markers
  8. Inflammatory Markers
  9. Hormones
  10. Blood Ketones
  11. Glucose Tolerance Test
  12. HbA1c
  13. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
  14. Arterial Blood Gases
  15. HIV and Hepatitis Screen

The Microbiology section offers a 24/7 service for the diagnosis of clinically relevant acute and chronic infections. A wide range of assays spanning bacteriology and mycology are performed on a combination of automated platforms and manual systems with highly skilled personnel, to provide a comprehensive infection science service. In addition, we offer microbial surveillance tests on both clinical and environmental samples.

Tests offered:

  1. Bacteriology (Microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing)
  2. Mycology (Identification for Candida species)
  3. Mycobacteriology (Microscopy)

Sample types:

  1. Blood (in blood culture bottles)
  2. Fluid samples (both sterile and non-sterile sites)
  3. Tissue samples
  4. Respiratory tract samples
  5. Urine
  6. Stool
  7. Environmental samples
  8. Prosthetic devices (from sterile sites)
  9. Nosocomial infection screening

Haematology section provides routine haematology, coagulation testing and blood-borne parasites screening.

  1. Full blood count
  2. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
  3. Blood Film Report
  4. Blood for Malaria Parasite
  5. Blood for Microfilaria
  6. Reticulocyte Count
  1. Prothrombin Time (PT) and INR
  2. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)
  3. D-Dimer Test (Quantitative)
  4. Fibrinogen Test
  5. Thrombin Time (TT)
​Molecular Diagnostics

The Molecular Diagnostics section offers routine and rapid molecular tests for the detection of a repertoire of infectious agents, monitoring of viral loads, and genotyping of viruses.

In addition, the laboratory also offers tests for pharmacogenetics and oncogene mutations.


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How long does it take to test my sample?

This is very variable and depends on the tests that have been requested for your sample. Some tests only take a few minutes, some take a few days, and others have to be sent to another laboratory, which can take several weeks. In addition to the time needed to do the test, time is also required for your doctor to receive the results, interpret the results and seek advice if required.

What happens to my fluid or tissue sample after the laboratory has completed its examination?

Fluid and tissue samples that are collected from patients are usually discarded after a specific period of time when all relevant testing has been completed.


Our Care Team

The mission of the SKH Pathology Department is to provide reliable, timely, and informative services to physicians and other health care providers for the benefit of the patient.