Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Options:
Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy:
The sleeve gastrectomy is a surgery only on the stomach and does not involve any surgery on intestine. Sleeve gastrectomy has also been called partial gastrectomy and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. It basically consists of making a stomach that looks like a pouch into a long tube; therefore the name "sleeve." The sleeve gastrectomy (SG) removes two-thirds of the stomach, which provides for quicker satiety (sense of fullness) and decreased appetite. The smaller stomach pouch restricts food intake by allowing only a small amount of food to be eaten at one time. After the separation of the stomach into a smaller tube, the remainder of the stomach is removed. The valve at the outlet of the stomach remains, this provides for the normal process of stomach emptying to continue which allows for the feeling of fullness. The potential complications of the operation on average are typically less than 0.5%.
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass:
The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alters both the stomach size and the route food travels during digestion. The surgeon creates a small 30 mL pouch from the patient's stomach and connects the pouch directly to the small bowel. Bypassing the remainder of the stomach and duodenum reduces the amount of fat and calories absorbed from food and helps suppress hunger. The procedure is recommended for patients with severe metabolic syndrome, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes. It is not recommended for patients who have had previous multiple abdominal surgeries. Patients typically spend two to three days in the hospital and are ready to return to work within three to four weeks. As a result of the procedure, they typically lose between 60 to 80 percent of their excess weight.
Gastric Balloon (non-surgical):
The gastric balloon is a soft silicone balloon that is inserted into the stomach via the mouth using an endoscope. The procedure takes only about 20- 30 minutes to complete. Partially filling the balloon system induces a feeling of satiety, thus reducing intake of food & aiding weight loss. It is indicated for weight loss therapy for overweight and obese people with a body mass index (bmi)>27kg/m2. Actual weight loss depends upon many factors, like how well a person adapts to the balloon and how they alter their eating behaviour. The gastric balloon is indicated for a maximum of 12 months and then it is removed by mouth using an endoscope.
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